Typologie des adjectifs et de la qualification dans les langues africaines

Projet International de Coopération Scientifique
LLACAN (CNRS, Inalco, Paris 7) / Universität Bayreuth (Afrikanistik)

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General and morphosyntactic questionnaire

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Language (3-letter ethnologue code) :
Record's author :
Source of information :

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  1. What is the prominent prosodic system ?
    stress / accent
    tonal accent
    tone
    unknown
    irrelevant

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  2. Are there noun classes ?
    yes
    yes, without agreement/concord
    yes, with agreement/concord
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

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  3. Is there a gender category ?
    Gender is intended here in the usual European / Afro-Asiatic meaning : masculine / feminine (/neuter), and is opposed here to noun class even if both phenomena can be considered similar.
    yes
    yes, without agreement/concord
    yes, with agreement/concord
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

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  4. Is there an 'animacy' category ?
    Here, the animacy category is opposed to gender and to noun class. But, for example, it can happen that the noun class is marked on the noun, but only the animacy value is marked on the verb concord. In such a case, answer yes.
    yes
    yes, without agreement/concord
    yes, with agreement/concord
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

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  5. What is the position of the following elements ?

  6.   N + X (after the noun) X + N (before the noun) both unknown irrelevant
    articles, demonstratives, definite / indefinite markers
    possessive personal markers
    genitive phrase
    qualifier (adjective, participle)
    relative clause
    numerals

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  7. What is the preferred order for lexical constituants ?
    It's about lexical constituants. The case of the object being represented by a pronoun is not considered here.
    V+Obj
    Obj+V
    unknown
    irrelevant

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  8. Is there one ore more connective/s ?
    Connective : element linking two nouns in a relation of determination. Examples : french de, english 's, bijogo CLASS-a...
    yes, one
    yes, several
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

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  9. Does number have a specific marking ?
    Class markers are not considered here, except if there's only one plural class.
    yes
    yes, without agreement/concord
    yes, with agreement/concord
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

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  10. Is there a category of adjectives ?
    An adjective fullfills the following requirements :
     – it functions as an epithet
     – it can not be conjugated
     – it cannot be a predicate by itself
     – it is not the head of a phrase
    yes
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

  11. Are there underived adjectives ?
    no
    less than 10
    between 10 and 30
    more than 30
    unknown
    irrelevant

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  12. Has the underived adjective the status of a verb or that of a noun ?
    verb
    noun
    both
    none
    unknown
    irrelevant

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  13. Is there a verb > adjective derivation pattern ?
    yes
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

  14. Is there an adjective > verb derivation pattern ?
    yes
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

  15. Is there a noun > adjective derivation pattern ?
    yes
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

  16. Is there an adjective > noun derivation pattern ?
    yes
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

  17. Can a noun be used as a modifier ?
    yes
    yes, in particular instances
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

  18. Are there participles in an epithetic position ?
    Nominal or adjectival forms of the verb which retain some typical verbal properties. Participles can be resultative, stative, passive, etc.
    yes
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

  19. Are there verbal nouns ?
    Verbal nouns are 'more nouny' than participles.
    yes
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

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  20. Is the semantic content of the adjective 'symmetrical' ?
    Can adjectives be entirely grouped in pairs of antonyms ?
    yes
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

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  21. Does the adjective undergo agreement ?
    yes
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

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  22. Is there an adjective > adverb derivation pattern ?
    yes
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

  23. Can the adjective be used as an adverb without formal change ?
    yes
    yes, in particular instances
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

  24. Can an adjective be qualified by another adjective ?
    yes
    yes, in particular instances
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

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  25. Can the adjective be combined with a modifier expressing comparison ?
    Such as 'more', 'less', 'most', 'least'
    yes
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

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  26. Is there one ore more verb/s meaning 'to be' ?
    yes, one
    yes, several
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

  27. Is a verb meaning 'to be' used to predicate a quality ?
    For example : 'He is tall'.
    yes
    yes, in particular instances
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

  28. Is there a copula ?
    Copula : element without conjugation used in an attributive, equative or locative clause
    yes
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

  29. Is there a nominal predication (without copula) ?
    yes
    yes, in particular instances
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

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  30. Are there stative verbs ?
    Stative verbs : a sub-class of verbs showing a non-dynamic semantism and specific morphological and/or syntactic properties.
    yes
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

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  31. Can the adjective bear a negation marker ?
    Negation is intended in a broad sense, not necessarily the verbal negation. For example : non-violent, a-grammatical, im-possible
    yes
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

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  32. Can qualification be expressed with a relative clause ?
    Of the type : 'a man who is good' for 'a good man'
    yes
    yes, in particular instances
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

  33. Can qualification use a genitive link ?
    For example : 'a man of courage'
    yes
    yes, in particular instances
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

  34. Can qualification be expressed with juxtaposition ?
    As in English : 'a good man'
    yes
    yes, in particular instances
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

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  35. Do ideophons represent a numerous category ?
    yes
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

  36. Can an ideophon be juxtaposed to an adjective ?
    yes
    yes, in particular instances
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

  37. Can an ideophone stand for an adjective ?
    yes
    yes, in particular instances
    no
    unknown
    irrelevant

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